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Russia Constantinople in a secret treaty; and Sir Edward
Grey tells us in his memoirs that he had to do it because,
even so early, it was the only way in which Russia could
be induced to stay on in that war from which in the
previous July he had been advised that it would be
unwise any longer to try to restrain her. We know
that from the beginning of that war Russia was deter-
mined to acquire Constantinople; and the matter did
not come into the story as an afterthought. And if
there was a certain disappointment in England when it
turned out that Turkey was to be our enemy in that
war, it is interesting to see, from the revelations of the
Soviet historian Pokrovsky, how anxious the Russians
were from the start lest Turkey, by becorfiing our ally,
should cheat them of the opportunity of the desired
reward. But for the Russian Revolution, which was
not in our calculations or conjectures at the time, Russia
would have emerged from the victorious war in 1919
with something like her present territory in Europe, and
indeed (owing to the resulting disposition of power),
with something very like her present sphere of influence
and control in the Balkans and Central Europe. She
would have had Constantinople to boot.

The power and sinister tendencies of a Russia are not
a negation of the power and the misdeeds of a Germany,
but they do impose upon us the difficult obligation
of keeping two areas of force in our survey at once, two
dangers in mind at the same time. And it is this
which we must note as the possible case of the his-
torian's perihelion of Mercury—this fact that, so far
as one can judge, there were two things which people